Highlighted results

23,200 people gained access to safe drinking water

17,000 people benefited from better management of water resources

715,000 people have improved food intake

25,000 small food producers have increased productivity and/or income

More than 500,000 women and girls received care after the cyclones

Additional sources

Factsheet Multiannual Country Strategy Mozambique

Factsheet on the efforts of The Netherlands from 2019 to 2022


Overview of projects in Mozambique


Mozambique, which is still one of the 10 poorest countries in the world, was hit by two devastating cyclones in 2019. Real GDP growth slowed to 1% in 2019 but will accelerate (possibly to an average of 8% in 2021-24) as reconstruction picks up and investment in the gas industry begins. The revenues of the major gas fields that were discovered off the coast of Cabo Delgado (the most northern province of Mozambique) provide a tangible opportunity to lift the country out of poverty. However, this potential is seriously threatened by the worsening security situation in the province. Since October 2017, Islamic extremists have been launching violent attacks on civilians in Cabo Delgado, resulting in at least 700 people being killed and more than 100,000 people displaced, and the number of attacks is escalating.

On the political front, a peace agreement was signed between the ruling Frelimo party and the main opposition party Renamo in August 2019. A landslide victory for Frelimo and its leader President Nyusi in the October 2019 elections has given the government even more power. However, the campaign was marred by an unlevel playing field and inter-party violence (see Final report EU Election Observation Mission, February 2020). A number of disputes still remain unresolved, such as the terms of disarmament of Renamo forces and political decentralisation. As a consequence, an armed separatist movement within Renamo has resumed small-scale attacks in central Mozambique.

Results 2019

The cyclones had a negative impact on the results of our water programmes as well as on food and nutrition security. Huge agricultural areas were destroyed by floods, severely affecting agricultural productivity. Through additional funding, we were able to support affected people with cash transfers, to compensate for the lost harvests. Also, as a result of the damage caused by the cyclones, fewer people than planned gained access to clean drinking water. In response to cyclone Idai, a taskforce of Dutch experts prepared the ‘Beira Recovery and Resilience Plan’ and funds were made available for reconstruction of this important coastal city. Furthermore, an Integrated Water Resource Management Fund was launched by the Netherlands Embassy with the objective to improve water security and water safety, especially in the centre and the north of the country. The results of our health programme remain on track overall, although the cyclones destroyed health facilities and the Ministry of Health restricted SRHR services at secondary schools to sexual education and the provision of only short-term contraceptives.

Results by theme

Water Food security SRHR

Featured project Mozambique

Seed Multiplication Project to Empower Small Commercial Farmers in Alta Zambezia

Mozambican agriculture badly needs productivity improvement for both food and cash crops. Often the single biggest obstacle to raising productivity is access to good seeds at affordable prices. Supported by the Dutch Embassy, the international NGO Technoserve successfully implemented a ‘Seed Multiplication Pilot Project’ to increase the productivity and profitability of smallholder agriculture in the Zambezi region, in the centre of Mozambique. By investing in skills and equipment for the ‘missing link’ of Small Commercial Farmers (SCFs), the project has created rural growth hubs as economic engines to spur local rural development.

Since the start of the project, the SCFs have reached greater numbers of smallholder farmers (through mechanised services, sales of seeds and other inputs, as well as knowledge transfer), increasing from less than 1,000 to 3,500. Based on the successful approach of this pilot project, a similar programme has been started in the province of Cabo Delgado.


More information on this project


The results in context

Mozambique has vast water resources but its infrastructure and management capacity are often insufficient. Mozambique has set an ambitious target for universal coverage of water by 2030, whereas only around 50% of the population currently has access to safe drinking water. The Netherlands supports two government institutions that are responsible for access to drinking water and sanitation. The 2019 cyclones damaged many installations that needed to be repaired. As a consequence, fewer people were provided with new water connections than initially planned. Full recovery of public infrastructure in a climate resilient way (‘building back better’) will take a couple of years.

Mozambique is among the 10 countries in the world with the highest percentage of population exposed to water risks. Flooding and droughts occur frequently and the country is heavily dependent on water resources from neighbouring countries. Through the Netherlands’ support to the regional water board in the Zambezi Valley, more people benefited from better management of water resources.



Additional people with access to safe drinking water


23,200 additional people


Progress, not on track

The Netherlands provides institutional support to the main Mozambican water institutions, FIPAG and AIAS, in order to increase access to safe drinking water. FIPAG is responsible for water supply in the bigger cities, while AIAS is responsible for water supply in the smaller cities/towns and for overall sanitation. In the reporting period, an additional 23,200 people were provided with access to safe drinking water, compared to the target of 85,000 people.

In 2019, the cyclones Idai (in the central region of the country) and Kenneth (in the northern province of Cabo Delgado) affected the water production and distribution infrastructure. Other complications in the water supply systems are obsolete networks and high losses of water (sometimes more than 50%). Support from the Netherlands means that FIPAG is now able to mobilise funds for investments in water supply systems. In addition to capacity building, the Netherlands also directly supports investments, for example in the city of Beira and the province of Cabo Delgado (e.g. through the Dutch Embassy’s funds and the DRIVE-programme).


Number of people with sufficient water of good quality throughout the year


17,000 people


On track

Improved water management is one of the main objectives of the Netherlands’ programmes in Mozambique. These support various local institutions with integrated water and resources management, such as the Zambezi regional water board, which is responsible for one of the major river basins in the country. The Netherlands will upscale this support in 2020 and beyond.

Mozambique has vast water resources but distribution times and geographical coverage are highly variable. Demand for water is expected to increase in the future, due to population growth, climate change and increasing economic activity. Shortage of water leads to increased competition between water uses (e.g. drinking water, agriculture and industry). The expected mega investments in northern Mozambique (Cabo Delgado) require special attention with respect to the safe usage of water resources, as they take place in vulnerable areas that are susceptible to salinization and environmental degradation.

In 2019, the Netherlands launched the new Integrated Water Resources Management Fund. This fund will support the regional water boards in the central Zambezi Valley and in the province of Cabo Delgado. At transboundary level, water management in the Incomati Maputo basin will be strengthened. The fund is expected to contribute to improved water security and safety through better allocation of water, reduced risk of flooding, improved water quality and increased availability of water.

17,000 people

Food security

The results in context

Agriculture is a critical pillar of the Mozambican economy, employing 80% of the labour force and contributing more than a quarter of GDP. Extremely high levels of chronic malnutrition affect almost one in two children under the age of five; a frightening figure. The overwhelming majority of producers are smallholder farmers. Through various programmes, the Netherlands supports these farmers in increasing their productivity and resilience to climate change. Cyclones Idai and Kenneth occurred during a critical harvest period, wiping out the food stocks of thousands of families and leaving many without the prospect of another full harvest until April 2020.

The Dutch government therefore made additional funds available for early recovery and cash transfers to the most vulnerable households, to ensure they had access to a nutritious diet. Apart from destroying food crops, the cyclones also destroyed various means of production, including irrigation structures, machinery and equipment. The long-term effects will continue to be felt throughout the country, since the central region of Mozambique that was hit by cyclone Idai is the country’s breadbasket.



Number of farmers with increased productivity and/or income




Progress, not on track

This indicator refers to farmers who have registered an increase in their production per unit of land area, as a result of adopting efficient production techniques. The indicator also measures the improvement in household income. In 2019, approximately 60,000 farmers were expected to increase productivity. However, due to the cyclones Idai and Kenneth, only 25,000 registered an increase


Number of people with improved food intake




On track

In the context of the social protection programme, this indicator refers to vulnerable households (mainly those with children below the age of two) that have improved food intake as a result of cash transfers. In 2019, 715,000 households benefited from cash transfers, compared to the target of 600,000.

Social protection through cash transfers is a top priority for the GoM, in order to foster inclusiveness and combat child malnutrition. Mozambique’s recent economic and climate crises have led to a deterioration in the socio-economic situation of the poor. Despite the government’s commitment to support social protection interventions, public expenditure remains low in relation to the size of the poorest and most vulnerable population.

The Netherlands’ support to social protection programmes is channelled through a Multi-Donor Trust Fund, managed by the World Bank. Due to the recent natural disasters, the cash transfer intervention was expanded to the affected areas. Apart from cash transfers, the Netherlands is providing support to strengthen the Mozambican social protection system, in order to improve the efficiency of service delivery to the programme beneficiaries. The support consists of technical assistance to the Ministry for Gender, Children and Social Affairs and its implementing agency, the National Institute for Social Action.


The results in context

Although some progress has been made, many SRHR indicators in Mozambique reveal a deplorable situation, which was further exacerbated by the cyclones. Thousands of women and girls were in urgent need of sexual and reproductive health care. In co-operation with UNFPA, 500,000 beneficiaries received life-saving emergency SRHR services (clinical equipment, medicines, supplies).

HIV prevalence is still at 13.2%. In 2019, more than 1.2 million people living with HIV accessed treatment but 30% of these stopped after 12 months. Only 65% of pregnant women and 70% of children continued taking their medicines after one year. Homosexuality is not illegal but Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) organisations are not yet able to register. Abortions are also not illegal but this is not widely known.

Dutch support to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and Population Services International (PSI) empowers young people with knowledge and skills. PSI, in co-operation with the Ministry of Health, trained staff and equipped 15 health centres to provide safe abortions. Support to the World Bank’s Global Financing Facility (GFF) strengthens the primary health care system, especially in catering for women and girls.

Regional SRHR/HIV programme in Southern Africa

Southern Africa remains the epicentre of the AIDS epidemic in the world. However, other SRHR indicators are also appalling and some groups are more deprived than others.

In the regional SRHR/HIV programme, the Netherlands focuses on empowering the most vulnerable groups: young people, including those living with HIV, girls, migrants, LGBT groups, people who use drugs and sex workers. And it is working. Peer educators, change agents and Community Adolescents Treatment Supporters (CATS) are making a difference.

For example, due to the engagement of CATS in the READY+ programme, almost 90% more young people living with HIV were reached (18,431 compared to 10,000 in 2018). Health providers became more motivated and better equipped to provide care to this specific group. The partnerships between the implementing partners and the various Ministries of Health were key to this success.

As part of a more integrated approach, SRHR interventions are linked with providing economic opportunities. Beneficiaries of our SRHR/HIV programmes are invited to enrol in technical and vocational training provided by Young Africa (the ‘Skills2Live’ programme). Young Africa, a network of centre-based and mobile training facilities, works closely with the private sector and caters to large groups of young people, including young people with disabilities. At the end of the course, the graduates are empowered to find employment or start their own business.

Evaluation of the ‘Hands Off!’ programme for sex workers shows that this regional programme has been successful in decreasing violence against sex workers. This success is based on building a strong sex worker movement by enhancing their awareness of human rights, setting up rapid emergency response systems and turning the police into an ally.

Despite the hostile political environment towards migrants in the region, the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) and implementing partners were able to reach more than 170,000 migrants with SRHR information and almost 19,000 received SRHR services. Child marriages were discouraged and traditional leaders were mobilised to send more than 100 child mothers back to school after delivery.

Changes in the legal environment in favour of migrants and key populations require endurance and time. The IOM advocates for SRHR rights at the regional Migration Dialogues for Southern Africa (MIDSA) and managed to include HIV and health issues in the SADC Regional Migration Policy Framework.

UNDP conducts Legal Environmental Assessments (LEAs) aiming at a more favourable legal environment for sexual minorities, sex workers and drug users; an environment that promotes SRHR and encourages access to HIV prevention, care and support. LEAs have been undertaken in five countries and recommendations for reforms have been formulated. However, legal reforms take time and depend on the commitment of politicians, legal advisors and civil society actors.



Couple Years of Protection (CYP)




On track

Couple Years of Protection (CYP) is a measure that estimates the protection from pregnancy provided by contraceptive methods during a one-year period. The figure shows a positive trend in CYP, from 2.7 to 3.4 million, as planned.

Mozambique has a contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 25% but this varies greatly by province and between rural and urban areas. There is a very low uptake of long-acting and reversible contraceptives (LARCs). Women face high pregnancy-related risks compounded by a persistent rate of 5.1 births per woman, a rate that has changed very little in recent decades. One in four women has an unmet need for family planning. The adolescent CPR is only 14% and 46% of adolescent girls have started childbearing.


Sexual education and SRHR-services in Secondary and Technical Schools




Progress, not on track

The target was 53.5% but only 51% of secondary and technical schools provided the education and services.

As a consequence of pressure, mainly from parents, the Mozambican government decided to restrict access to long-term family planning methods by students at secondary schools. Currently, only condoms and oral pills can be provided to students at school. Only the youth corners at primary health centres still provide longer-term contraceptives.

Through our support to UNFPA’s ‘My Choice’ programme and the multimedia campaign ‘Aquele Papo’ (‘That Conversation’) produced by PSI, more than 320,000 young people in and out of school, teachers and parents have been reached with correct information on SRHR and encouraged to discuss topics such as intimate relations, gender-based violence and family planning methods.

Background and future Mozambique


Mozambique is exposed to extreme climatic hazards, such as cyclones, floods and droughts. Such events have severe effects on food security and nutrition. The two cyclones that hit Mozambique in 2019, in the same season for the first time in history, killed hundreds of people and left 1.85 million more stranded with no homes, food, water or basic infrastructure. Most damage was caused in the priority areas of our Multi-Annual Country Strategy: the city of Beira, the central Zambezi Valley region and the province of Cabo Delgado.

As a consequence, the Netherlands needed to reschedule part of its activities. As well as humanitarian aid and expertise in the area of post-disaster needs assessment, the Netherlands has pledged additional resources for recovery in Beira, such as cash transfers to affected people and recovery of the agricultural sector. New investments in coastal protection and drainage are also being considered through the DRIVE and D2B programmes. Our co-ordinating role in Beira has proven to be useful to attract external funding. We strive to play a similar role in Cabo Delgado, where we initiated the establishment of a platform to bring together public and private stakeholders.

Glimpse into the future

As one of the most unequal countries in the world, Mozambique’s long-term development challenge is to translate its economic growth into poverty reduction by stimulating more diversified and inclusive growth. In the shorter term, the country needs to restore investors’ and development partners’ confidence, which took a blow as a result of the hidden debt scandal in 2016. The government also needs to address the challenges caused by violence in the centre and especially the north of the country.

In this fragile context, the Netherlands’ programme for development co-operation in Mozambique is being scaled back. The bilateral programme for sexual and reproductive health and rights will be phased out but we will continue with our regional SRHR/HIV programme. We will increase our regional focus in the centre and the north, the poorest areas of the country. Our focus is on interventions that offer the best opportunities to contribute to the transition from aid to trade: in water, food and nutrition security and energy. Where possible, we act as a broker and leverage public and private resources.

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic is most likely severe. The extent to which this affects our current and future projects is still unknown.

Additional sources

You can find how the budget was allocated in 2019 and which projects were funded on the budget website.

  1. Visit the website
    Programme budget Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation
  2. Select financial year 2019
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Embassy website

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Results Water

Download PDF with results for Water in Mozambique

Results Food security

Download PDF with results for Food security in Mozambique

Results SRHR

Download PDF with results for SRHR in Mozambique

Results Women’s rights and gender equality

Download PDF with results for Women’s rights and gender equality in Mozambique

Expenditure Embassy by channel


Expenditure Embassy by theme


The budget in this figure is for the year 2019 and does not completely correspond with the results on this page, which have been collected between Oct 2018 and Oct 2019. More information on this can be found on the 'About the results report' page.