Highlighted results

15,185,086 m2 of land cleared of the explosive remnants of war

136,912 people supported in obtaining justice

3,309 peace mediators and negotiators trained

311 dialogue processes supported

Additional sources

Theory of Change

Download PDF document with the Theory of Change

Pathway for Peace report

Download the World Bank and United Nations report Pathway for Peace – Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict


The Netherlands’ Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation (BHOS) policy document, entitled ‘Investing in Perspective’ and published in May 2018, focusses on how Security and Rule of Law contributes to conflict prevention. The Sustainable Development Agenda for 2030 is the ultimate conflict-prevention agenda, in particular the guideline for Dutch development efforts and Sustainable Development Goal 16 ( promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies).

Security and rule of law are preconditions for sustainable peace and development. Instability and (the risk of) armed conflict make realising the Sustainable Development Goals more difficult. The Netherlands contributes to achieving SDG 16 by focusing on on human security, access to, and the establishment of, judicial and democratic institutions and inclusive peace processes .

In 2017-2018, the Netherlands increased its focus on Security and Rule of Law and updated its Theory of Change and results framework. The overarching goal is to achieve ‘legitimate stability’, making citizens feel represented and safe. Citizens are at the heart of this approach. By promoting the security for people, rule of law, peace processes and political governance, the Netherlands contributes to peaceful, lawful and inclusive societies. Focus is mainly on the following regions: the Sahel, Horn of Africa, North Africa, the Middle East and Great Lakes and Afghanistan.

Results 2018

Security for people

In 2017-2018, the Netherlands demined 15.2 million m2 of land to enable people to live in safety. In addition, we supported the training of 6,644 professionals (including female UN peacekeepers, police officers and deminers) to improve the quality of their work. Evaluations show that local communities felt safer during the reporting period. We supported this work through our partners in countries such as Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Libya and South Sudan.

Rule of Law

The Netherlands increased access to justice for more than 136,000 people, of which 32% women. In addition, more than 20,000 people gained access to transitional justice mechanisms. Our support resulted in strengthened capacity of 53 judicial institutions. Lastly, we supported 118 legal reform processes that included civil society organisations.

Peace processes and political governance

The Netherlands worked with specialized organisations to support peace processes, through specific mediation efforts and the training of 3,300 trained peace mediators and negotiators. Furthermore, we contributed to longer-term efforts to build peace after conflict. In for example, Mali, Uganda and Kenya, our support resulted in strengthened capacities of local authorities and communities to preventand resolve conflicts. In South Sudan, Somalia and Mali, our support promoted governments’ and politicians’ engagement and cooperation with citizens.

Result areas

Security for people Rule of law Peace processes and legitimate political governance

Featured project security and rule of law

Interlinking Peace Building, Decentralisation and Development

The Marial Bai peace agreement between cattle farmers and farming communities in three states in South Sudan led to fewer conflicts during the annual cattle migration around the city of Wau. Previously, conflicts would intensify and lead to violence and deaths. Migration has now improved considerably, with fewer violent incidents and less damage to crops and cattle. Damages were resolved peacefully in accordance with the agreement, which improved the security and living conditions of all those involved.

This VNG project increased the capacity of local governments and communities to improve the security of citizens, for example through joint co-ordination and facilitation of peace dialogue. Communities and cattle farmers were given the opportunity to promote their interests and the agreement set out in clear terms the rights and obligations of all parties. The terms of the agreement were kept; due to this successful outcome, this initiative will be replicated in other states at the request of local communities.

South Sudan: Interlinking Peace Building, Decentralisation and Development

Read more about the peace process in South Sudan on the VNG International website

Security for people

Deminer active in Lebanon. Photo: Sean Sutton/MAG

Security for people

This result area is aimed at increasing security for people (human security) by reducing violence and fear. In contrast to definitions of security that focus on the security of the state, here the goal is to protect people against threats. To achieve this, the Netherlands supports organisations involved in the reform of security institutions and the promotion of security co-operation at a local level. In addition, the Netherlands supports organisations that demine land and contribute to the prevention of radicalisation and violent extremism among vulnerable youths.

Open result area

Deminer active in Lebanon. Photo: Sean Sutton/MAG

The physical and mental integrity of people is an essential right. Protection and human security are the starting points for our policy.

If the state can create and maintain security, this strengthens the relationship between citizens and the state. People being treated badly by the police and army increases the risk of radicalisation and violent extremism. A good relationship between citizens and the state is therefore a cornerstone for sustainable peace.

Only when human security is protected can one work toward sustainable development. Insecurity makes it difficult for people to focus on their own future and the future of the society in which they live. Human security is therefore the starting point for all of our activities: from the reform of national and local security institutions to demining land and training female officers to participate in United Nations peace operations on behalf of their country.



Number of people feeling secure


Not applicable

The figures from various projects show that people feel safer

This indicator measures the extent to which people feel secure in the area where they live.

While no composite data is available, the figures from various projects show that people feel safer due to the activities performed. For instance, 75% of the respondents indicated that they felt safer in their home and community after participating in a project focused on Yazidi women in Iraq. The activities involved psychosocial support in processing trauma as a result of sexual violence by IS.

In Syria, White Helmets volunteers are contributing to the protection of the local population and performing rescue operations after military attacks. Some 68% of people feel safer since the activities of the White Helmets started, before this figure was 27%. Naturally, there are more factors that affect people’s sense of security in war situations.

In the Mine Action and Cluster Munitions programme (MACM) in Lebanon, Syria, Libya and South Sudan, 87% of the respondents felt safer after mines were removed and the local population was informed about the risks.


Number of square metres of land demined


On track

Dutch financial aid has helped to demine more than 15 million m2 of land worldwide. The reduced threat has directly contributed to the lives of at least 920,928 people, a result that exceeded the target by 117%.

The Netherlands is the eighth-largest donor in the field of humanitarian demining worldwide. Some 87% of mine victims in 2017 were civilians, with 47% being children. Humanitarian demining removes physical risks and reduces the number of victims of landmines and explosive remnants of war (SDG 16.1). This eventually encourages a sense of security among citizens, making humanitarian demining a condition for the safe return of the displaced and for socio-economic rebuilding activities to begin after conflict. Demining of critical infrastructure also improves access to basic facilities and increases safe access for humanitarian aid organisations and peace missions. With a strong focus on gender and local capacity building, men and women from affected areas are recruited and trained to perform demining activities. In addition to providing them with a source of income, it also anchors the sustainability of the Dutch efforts.


Number of professionals trained in the field of human security


Not applicable

6,644 trained professionals

Our projects help to train many professionals, including future female UN peacekeepers, police officers, members of parliament, civil servants, journalists and deminers. These training sessions enable participants to make a better contribution to human security.

Our partners worked with at least 79 national and local institutions in areas affected by armed conflict. This involves 28 formal institutions, such as government bodies, and 51 informal organisations, including NGOs. A total of 6,644 professionals were trained and are now able to better perform their work in protecting the local population. The training therefore has a long-term positive impact on the local security situation.

UN Women trained 40 female military officers, which gives them a better chance of participating in a United Nations peace operation. The participation of female soldiers contributes to the success of the mission, since a more diverse team is better able to make contact with the local population. This strengthens the flow of information and local support for the UN operation.

The Dutch demining partners trained national and local authorities involved in the demining process. This enabled the partners to better perform their work and improve the local security situation. In Iraq, the Mine Action Group employed the country’s first all-female demining team.

Progress in result area Security for people

The Netherlands contributes to the reduction of violence and fear among citizens. Various methods are applied, including demining 15.2 million m2 of land to create safe living conditions for the population. Another aspect involved training 6,644 professionals, including future female peacekeepers, police officers and deminers, enabling them to make a greater contribution to human security.

The Netherlands also contributes to the better functioning of formal and informal security institutions at both the national and local level. These security institutions must be effective, accountable and transparent, and listen to citizens. The Netherlands was active in Mali, Lebanon and Libya in this field.

Citizens indicated that they feel safer due to the work of our partners in the various projects for which results are available. For the reporting period, this includes Syrian citizens and Yazidi women and girls in Iraq.

Female Military Officers Training

The training for female military officers organised by UN Women is designed to properly prepare women for participation in United Nations peace operations. In 2017, 40 women participated in the training. This involved developing specific skills and knowledge, so they can be sent on mission by their national military forces. It is often easier for female peacekeepers to make contact with local populations, and women and girls in particular. Moreover, it gives a peace mission better opportunities to communicate with victims of gender-based violence.

Humanitarian demining and risk communication in Sirte, Libya

Humanitarian demining and risk communication in Sirte, Libya

With the help of Dutch funding, DCA performed humanitarian demining activities in and around the city of Sirte in Libya. Due to its occupation by IS, homes, schools and hospitals were littered with explosive remnants of war and booby traps. This led to many fatal accidents among returning citizens as they searched for their possessions. DCA was the only demining organisation in Sirte at that time and managed to clear a total of 81,494 m2 of land of landmines and other explosives. This benefited more than 30,000 people. Families were able to return home safely and farmers could again start working their land. In addition, at least 19,500 people were educated on the risks of dealing with landmines and explosives, and how to do so safely. Local authorities say that this aid has been indispensable in preventing more victims.

Image: DCA Clearance of anti-tank explosive from school playground in Sirte

The impact of humanitarian demining: reopening of the Girl’s Science Academy in Sirte

Thanks to the Danish Church Aid (DCA) humanitarian demining teams the Girl’s Science Academy was reopened. After being closed by IS, the 123 students received no education for two years. These girls can now once again go to school safely.

Gender awareness within the Malian Police Force

Gender awareness within the Malian Police Force

An important prerequisite for restoring security and stability in Mali is reforming the security sector. The Netherlands supports the organisation Democratic Control of Armed Forces to do this. An important aspect of this programme are workshops in gender awareness. The national police participates in the workshops, which are also part of the national Malian action plan against gender-based violence. The goal of these types of workshop is to broaden the knowledge of the relationship between gender and security. The training sessions contribute to police officers behaving in a more positive way in relevant cases. Moreover, it contributes to an equal representation of women and men in the security sector. In this specific case, a total of 77 female and male police officers and chiefs participated.

Rule of law

The Save Syrian Schools project from the International Center of Transitional Justice (ICTJ) brings together ten Syrian organisations to document issues such as the devastating consequences of attacks on schools in Syria. Source: ICTJ

Strengthening rule of law

This result area concerns three goals: assisting 100,000 people (at least half of which women) to obtain justice, strengthening judicial institutions and using transitional justice to support societies in dealing with the aftermath of widespread abuses in the (recent) past. In 2017-2018, the Netherlands assisted more than 136,000 people to gain access to justice – a better result than expected.

Open result area

The Save Syrian Schools project from the International Center of Transitional Justice (ICTJ) brings together ten Syrian organisations to document issues such as the devastating consequences of attacks on schools in Syria. Source: ICTJ

A robust judicial system offers opportunities for resolving conflicts peacefully, restraining power systems and encouraging respect for human rights. In contrast, weak judicial systems can exacerbate tensions and result in escalation. For this reason, the Netherlands aims to strengthen the rule of law, giving citizens a better chance of obtaining justice via formal and informal institutions. These institutions must be effective, independent and objective, and be accountable to citizens. When citizens have access to justice and are treated as equals by law, inequality will be reduced and more equal opportunities will arise. This in turn contributes to a sense of justice which enhances the trust between citizens and the state.

To strengthen rule of law, the Netherlands focuses on improving access to justice, reforming the judicial sector and supporting societies in dealing with the aftermath of widespread abuses in the (recent) past (transitional justice).



Number of beneficiaries with access to justice


On track

People are considered to have access to justice when they actually use legal mechanisms or procedures, varying from submitting a complaint to resolving a dispute. This allows people to find solutions to their specific legal problems and needs.

The indicator measures the number of men and women assisted in gaining access to justice via formal or informal institutions to resolve disputes in fragile or conflict-affected areas.

The Netherlands promotes citizens’ access to (in)formal legal systems in various countries, including Afghanistan, the Palestinian territories, Mali, Rwanda, Kenya, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Uganda, Burundi, Jordan, Pakistan and South Sudan.

In Jordan, nearly 5,000 people benefited from improved access to justice. This was realised via a Mercy Corps project, which helped people to gain access to legal services. The UNICEF, UN Women and UNDP’s Sawasya programme in the Palestinian territories provided 8,998 people (mainly women) with legal aid. In Kenya, the number of cases processed by the judicial authorities increased by 63%, representing a considerable positive impact on access to justice. Partner organisation IDLO contributed by training the judicial authorities and assisting them in adapting their systems. In Afghanistan, UNDP helped to develop a handbook on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) to align the working methods of the various institutions involved in SGBV cases.


Stronger judicial institutions, including courts and prison system


On track

This indicator measures the number of judicial institutions strengthened in terms of fairness, effectiveness, independence and/or accountability.

Judicial institutions include a variety of organisations in the field of justice, such as formal state institutions (for example courts and police forces) or informal institutions that do not belong to the state (such as alternative community dispute resolution mechanisms).

The Netherlands strengthened 43 judicial institutions (including informal organisations), through support to The Hague Institute for Innovation of Law (HiiL). It achieved this by bringing together various stakeholders in the justice sector to discuss evidence-based policy priorities and to develop joint visions. For example, in Tunisia, Jordan, Lebanon, Bangladesh and Nigeria, HiiL created platforms to discuss innovative solutions and joint strategies to address some of the key judicial challenges, such as how to improve access to justice in remote areas.

In South Sudan, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi, Cordaid supported civil society organisations to develop proposals for judicial reforms and to conduct assessments of the codes of conduct for magistrates. To improve the effectiveness of judicial institutions, the [http://www.minijust.gov.rw/home/]Ministry of Justice in Kigali[/url] (Rwanda) implemented an electronic system for the management of court cases. Furthermore, partner IDLO further strengthened the Commission for Human Rights in Uganda and an additional 24 judicial institutions were established in Mali.


Victims access mechanisms for transitional justice


On track

Number of victims making use of transitional justice mechanisms

After large-scale human rights violations, there is an increased need for special mechanisms to ensure justice, such as criminal processes, truth commissions or reparations for victims. These are essential from a human rights perspective and to ensure sustainable conflict resolution.

This indicator measures the number of victims that have made use of transitional justice mechanisms. Examples include truth finding, criminal prosecution, indemnification and the reform of laws and institutions.

With support from the Netherlands, major steps were taken to improve transitional justice and justice for large-scale human rights violations in countries such as Syria, Colombia and Tunisia.

The International Center of Transitional Justice (ICTJ) established the Save Syrian Schools project as part of which ten Syrian organisations from Turkey and Lebanon jointly documented the devastating consequences of attacks on schools in Syria. During a public hearing in Geneva, the stories of the victims and their families were shared with the international community. This helped the organisations generate extra attention for the attacks.

UNDP also promoted transitional justice, for example in Tunisia and Colombia. In Tunisia, the Truth and Dignity Commission organised eight public hearings during which victims were able to tell their stories. Furthermore 46,302 victims were interviewed individually. In Colombia, initiatives in various communities were implemented to fulfil the right to reparation of 20,486 victims of the armed conflict.

Progress in result area Rule of law

A total of 136,912 people gained access to justice during the reporting period. This means that they actually used legal mechanisms or procedures, varying from submitting a complaint to resolving a dispute. The results are largely derived from the UNDP Global Programme on Security and Rule of Law, which is being implemented in various countries. Other substantial contributions were made through projects in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, the Palestinian territories, Uganda and Rwanda. Programmes focus on improving the quality of, and access to, legal systems, providing people with concrete solutions to daily conflicts and disputes.

At individual levels, this contributes to the promotion of rights, in particular rights of vulnerable people (including women, in many cases). Investing in access to justice also prevents stress and illness, as well associated costs, such as not being able to (fully) participate in the labour market. At a societal level, access to justice potentially contributes to improving the social contract and trust between citizens and the government. Many programmes are geared to supporting marginalised groups, including those in the framework of shelter in the region. For example, in Jordan UNDP established two legal aid centres for Syrian refugees together with a local NGO, the Princess Taghrid Institute. They provide legal advice on family-, work- and housing-related disputes to more than 1,300 people.

Although the number of people with improved access to justice is higher than the target for 2017 (100,000), it is still lower than the number reported during the previous reporting period (147,000). This can in part be explained by the stricter calculation methods of the indicator and due to a recalculation of results achieved by UNDP. In addition, several activities were cancelled in Burundi due to the political situation. New programmes that will contribute to this indicator will be started in 2019.

As was the case in 2016, the goal of at least 50% women was not achieved. A total of 42,939 women were reached during this reporting year. Compared to the total number of people reached, this amounts to 32%, compared to 38% during the previous reporting period. This is partly due to the fact that some results cannot be divided into men or women as yet; mainly programmes from government institutions (in Kenya and Rwanda, for instance) which do not record (complete) figures on these matters.

Task Force on Justice

The Netherlands is very active in promoting Sustainable Development Goal 16.3 (access to justice) in international policy fora. The Netherlands co-chairs the innovative Pathfinders for SDG16 + Task Force on Justice. This concerns a varied group of countries and experts that together aim to realise SDG 16 (and SDG 16.3 in particular) in the run-up to the High Level Political Forum in 2019 and the period thereafter.

Task Force on Justice

Read more about the Task Force on Justice on the website.

Mhaki initiative in Kenya

Mhaki initiative in Kenya

In Kenya, the Netherlands financed the Mhaki initiative to give people access to legal information and advice. This included the ability to ask questions to lawyers from the executive partner Kituo Cha Sheria about matters such as land rights, labour rights, refugee rights and housing via mobile phone (text message) or the website www.m-haki.co.ke. Kituo Cha Sheria also provides legal aid in prisons.

Mhaki initiative in Kenya

Read more about the Mhaki initiative on the Kituo Cha Sheria website.

Peace processes and legitimate political governance

Interpeace and the Peace and Development Research Centre (PDRC) supported a youth group in the Somali region of Puntland that tried to convince militia members to end the conflict by referring them to peace processes in Galkacyo. Photo: Interpeace/PDRC.

Promoting inclusive peace and political processes

In 2017-2018, the Netherlands supported authorities and communities in the prevention and resolution of conflicts in an effective and non-violent way. This included the training of mediators, including women, who play an important part in peace processes. This contributed to the reaching of peace agreements and strengthening of people’s capacities to resolve conflicts peacefully. The Netherlands also supported peacebuilding initiatives focused on improving the trust between communities as well as between citizens and the government. Lastly, we supported strengthening of inclusive governance (local and national), addressing the issue of exclusion and weak governance as a primary cause of conflict.

Open result area

Interpeace and the Peace and Development Research Centre (PDRC) supported a youth group in the Somali region of Puntland that tried to convince militia members to end the conflict by referring them to peace processes in Galkacyo. Photo: Interpeace/PDRC.

Excluding citizens from political or peace processes results in a sense of powerlessness that can lead to violence. For this reason, we focus on promoting inclusive political and peace processes.

Relationships between government, politicians and citizens are often not well-defined. The interests of the ruling elite and the limited means of the government to provide services to citizens impede the development of a sustainable and peaceful society. Citizens are often insufficiently organised or not sufficiently capable of clearly promoting their own interests. The Netherlands mainly focuses on improving the relationship between government, politicians and citizens. A political process is only considered to be inclusive if it involves greater transparency from the government and allows citizens to participate in the debate.

Peace processes are complex and require long-term efforts. We focus on strengthening mediation efforts by third parties (UN, regional organisations and specialised NGOs) to achieve inclusive peace agreements. We support mediation efforts at a regional, national and local levels, and strengthen the negotiation skills of parties and mediators. After a peace agreement is reached, work continues to repair the trust between groups and the government. We support peace building activities in various countries through various partners, including the UN Peace Building Fund.

At national levels, we work with governments and a wide range of non-governmental actors (including political parties) to strengthen mechanisms for conflict resolution and peace building.

At the international level, the Netherlands advocates for greater effectiveness of multilateral and regional peacebuilding and conflict prevention efforts. For example through the promotion of joint strategic analysis and programming and increased cooperation amongst international actors.



Number of conflicts that are addressed and resolved by community structures


Not applicable

1,307 resolved conflicts

This is an indicator of the effectiveness of local mechanisms in achieving peaceful resolution of conflicts. It includes conflicts that were resolved via external mediation.

Examples of results achieved under this indicator include:

• Cessation of Hostilities Agreement and the development of an implementation plan to support the peace dialogue between Sudan and South Sudan (UN DPA).

• In the Sahel (Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso), more than 75% of the total of 392 conflicts between nomads and communities along the border identified by the CHD (Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue) were resolved.

• In Togo, 37 local peace committees were established, which are effective in resolving conflicts (UNDP-DPA).

• Thanks to support from local mechanisms, 156 local conflicts were resolved in South Sudan (CARE).

• In South Sudan, support led to a peace agreement between cattle farmers and farming communities, which caused a substantial reduction in the number of conflicts due to migrating cattle (VNG).

Targets for this indicator will be established in 2019.


Number of groups and mediators trained in conflict resolution skills


On track

Mediating and negotiating skills are crucial in promoting the peaceful resolution of conflicts.

Examples of results that contributed to achieving this indicator, in which the results were significantly interrelated:

More than 100 young diplomats from Eritrea, Ethiopia and Egypt (UN DPA) trained in conflict mediation.

80 young people in border areas in the Ukraine trained to work towards peace-building in their communities (International Alert).

Female Somali leaders from civil society organisations trained in the field of conflict resolution and mediation (UN PBF).

632 people (including 237 women) trained in conflict mediation and negotiation of peace agreements, plus representatives of parties on opposite sides of the spectrum (Clingendael Mediation Facility).


Number of dialogue processes to strengthen the political/public debate


Not applicable

311 public debates

This indicator measures the number of public debates organised to enable the discussion of subjects and peacefully resolve differences of opinion. These debates are part of programmes aimed at bringing together stakeholders that would not usually share the same table. This often results in resolution.

These figures involve programmes by NIMD, CARE, Cordaid, VNG International and the UN-DPA Conflict Prevention Programme. They comprise a wide variety of debates in terms of both content and level (local, regional or national). The benefit is that participants now have the opportunity to exchange thoughts and ideas. A condition is that everyone should be willing to enter into the dialogue and give each other the opportunity to express concerns.

Examples include:

Debates on the position of women in countries such as Afghanistan and Rwanda. A visible result is an emerging change of social norms among religious leaders and national policy guidelines regarding the political participation of women (CARE).

Debates in South Sudan between local leaders and governments to discuss cases of sexual violence – a theme that was added to the National Action Plan for UN Resolution 1325 (protecting women) (Cordaid).

Targets for these indicators will be established in 2019.

Progress in result area Peace processes and legitimate political governance

Peace processes and repairing the trust between groups and the state are complex and lengthy processes. Results are therefore difficult to measure and quantify. The Netherlands will continue to work towards achieving and maintaining peace agreements in situations of conflict and violence.

Results at national levels were mainly achieved via partnerships with multilateral organisations, whereas NGO partners contributed to most of the results at community levels. The sustainability of results at community levels is challenging, especially when national political tensions and conflicts overshadow performance. We have seen this in for example Burundi. For this reason, we recommend that our partners ensure aligning its community-based activities with national level political and peace processes.

With regards to political governance, focus at national levels has primarily been on on political parties and parliamentary support. At local levels, support has targeted municipalities. In our focus countries, NGO partners assist associations of municipalities in creating a stronger connection with national level governments. Another way to make this connection is via lobbying activities for legislative amendments to stimulate inclusive political processes.

Mediation in Northern and Central Mali – Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue

In Northern and Central Mali, local peace processes were initiated based on The Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in Mali. The agreement from 2015 forms the basis for the restoration of peace and addressing the causes of the conflict in the field of politics, security, justice and socio-economic development.

CHD was mandated by the Malian government to help keep the peace processes on track. This is realised via mediation in conflicts within local communities. The goal is to prevent escalation and violence, unrest and insecurity. Support of CHD led to a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement between fighting villages and a peace agreement between various communities in border regions between Mali and Niger.

Mediation in Northern and Central Mali

Read more about the peace process in Northern and Central Mali on the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (CHD) website

School for Democracy in Tunisia – NIMD/CEMI

The ten largest political parties in Tunisia annually nominate their most talented young members to participate in the Tunisian School for Democracy of the Centre des Etudes Méditerranéennes et Internationales (CEMI). The initiative is supported by the Netherlands Institute for Democracy (NIMD). The 45 participants include women, people from agricultural regions and young people. They primarily value the opportunity to hold constructive discussions with people from other political parties – a new experience for many participants. The school encourages a democratic culture, dialogue and mutual understanding.

By following the alumni of the schools in Tunisia (and also Colombia), it becomes clear that many participants actually end up in politics. The hope is that the experiences gained will allow them to continue to resolve differences of opinion via constructive dialogue.

Tunisian School for Democracy

Read more on the website of the Netherlands Institute for Democracy

Background information theme security and rule of law


The number of violent conflicts worldwide has been increasing since 2010. The nature of these conflicts has changed and become more complex. They increasingly take place within states, with more involvement of non-state armed groups and interference from foreign states. Instability is mainly increasing in the regions around Europe: the Middle East, North Africa, the Sahel and the Horn of Africa. The Global Peace Index shows that the world was less peaceful in 2018 than in 2017. Out of the Dutch focus regions, South Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Tunisia and Niger were less peaceful while Libya, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian territories, Yemen, Malo and Burkina Faso became relatively more peaceful in 2018.

Research by Gallup shows that in the countries where the Netherlands is active in the field of security and rule of law, the sense of security was relatively low in 2018. On a scale of 0 to 100 Iraq (71), Yemen (71), Mali (66), South Sudan (54) and Afghanistan (45) had the lowest scores. A poll during 2017 showed that the confidence in justice in Iraq, Lebanon, Niger and Yemen increased (slightly). In contrast, the level of trust decreased in the other countries in which the Netherlands is active (the Palestinian territories, Tunisia, Mali, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Afghanistan).

Glimpse into the future

Citizens will continue to be centre of the security and rule of law policy (a people-centric approach). At country levels, the Netherlands will work towards improving access to justice, doubling it to 200,000 people in 2020. In addition, there will be a greater focus on the sustainability of our efforts based on local initiatives, capacity building and the inclusion of specific groups.

The Netherlands will further strengthen the Inclusion of vulnerable groups, such as women and young people, in peace and political processes and define specific targets for this. ed. Together with our partners we will ensure that at least 50% of the people for whom access to justice is increased are women and girls and improve

results measurement further. More information will feed into better planning and strategy development. Where results are difficult to measure, such as in the field of conflict prevention, we will work with our partners to analyse how we can strengthen our insights into the progress and impact. Increased collaboration with various knowledge institutes and strategic partners will play an important role in this.

Additional sources

Knowledge platform for Security and Rule of Law

Page of the Knowledge Platform for the Security & Rule of Law theme

Results overview

Download PDF document with all results

Expenditure by channel